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英语介词用法 – Crazy knowledge base
Crazy knowledge base

英语介词用法

介词(The Preposition)又叫做前置词,通常置于名词之前。它是一种虚词,不需要重读,在句中不单独作任何句子成分,只表示其后的名词或相当于名词的词语与其他句子成分的关系。中国学生在使用英语进行书面或口头表达时,往往会出现遗漏介词或误用介词的错误,因此各类考试语法的结构部分均有这方面的测试内容。

1. 介词的种类

英语中最常用的介词,按照不同的分类标准可分为以下几类:
(1). 简单介词、复合介词和短语介词

①.简单介词是指单一介词。如:
at , in ,of ,by , about , for, from , except , since, near, with 等。

②. 复合介词是指由两个简单介词组成的介词。如:
Inside, outside , onto, into , throughout, without , as to as for , unpon, except for 等。

③. 短语介词是指由短语构成的介词。如:
In front of , by means o f, on behalf of, in spite of , by way of , in favor of , in regard to 等。

(2). 按词义分类

{1} 表地点(包括动向)的介词。如:
About ,above, across, after, along , among, around , at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between , beyond ,by, down, from, in, into , near, off, on, over, through, throught, to, towards,, under, up, unpon, with, within , without 等。

{2} 表时间的介词。如:
About, after, around , as , at, before , behind , between , by, during, for, from, in, into, of, on, over, past, since, through, throughout, till(until) , to, towards , within 等。

{3} 表除去的介词。如:
beside , but, except等。

{4} 表比较的介词。如:
As, like, above, over等。

{5} 表反对的介词。如:
againt ,with 等。

{6} 表原因、目的的介词。如:
for, with, from 等。

{7} 表结果的介词。如:
to, with , without 等。

{8} 表手段、方式的介词。如:
by, in ,with 等。

{9} 表所属的介词。如:
of , with 等。

{10} 表条件的介词。如:
on, without , considering 等。

{11} 表让步的介词。如:
despite, in spite notwithstanding等。

{12} 表关于的介词。如:
About, concerning, regarding ,with regard to, as for , as to

{13} 表对于的介词。如:
to, for over , at , with 等。

{14} 表根据的介词。如:
on, according to 等。

{15} 表其他的介词。如:
for(赞成),without(没有)等。

2. 介词短语

(1).介词短语的构成 介词之后出现的名词、代词或其他相当于名词的结构、短语或从句叫介词宾语。介词短语是指介词和介词宾语构成的短语。介词短语的构成主要有下面的形式:

{1} 介词+名词。如:
The headmaster lives near the school
校长住在学校附近。

{2} 介词+名词性从句。如:
I am curious as to what she will say.
我很想知道她想说什么。

{3} 介词+代词。如:
What do you know about him ?
关于他,你都知道些什么?

{4} 介词+动名词短语或其复合结构。如:
He is interested in swimming.
他对游泳感兴趣。
The painter is keen on collecting coins
那位画家喜欢收集硬币。
There are no risk of you being late
你不会迟到的。

{5} 介词+连接词或连接副词引导的从句或不定式。如:
Your success will largely depend upon how you do it.
你成功与否将主要取决于你怎样做。
The teacher gave us a talk on how to study English .
老师给我们做了一个如何学英语的讲座。

{6} 介词+数词。如:
Six from twelve is six
12减6等于6。

{7} 介词+形容词。如:
We know her of old
我们老早就认识了她。

{8} 介词+副词。如:
They worked all day and had a hurried luch in between .
他们工作了一整天,中间匆匆吃了一顿饭。

(2). 介词短语的作用
介词短语在句中可作多种句子成分:

{1} 作主语。如:
From the library to the teaching building is a 5 minutes’ walk.
从图书馆到教学楼要走五分钟。

{2} 作表语。如:
Are you for the plan?
你赞成这个计划吗?
I was at my grandma’s yesterday.
我昨天在我奶奶家。

{3} 作宾语。如:
He gave me until tomorrow.
他给我的期限是到明天。
The dog came out from behind the tree..
狗从树后出来。(behind the tree 作介词from 的宾语)

{4} 作定语。如:
She is a woman of strong character.
她是位性格坚强的女人。
The expert will give us a lecture on how to improve soil.
这个专家将给我们作一个如何改良土壤的讲座。

{5} 作补语。如:
He woke up and found himself in hospital
他醒来发现自己在医院里。(in hospital作宾补)
As a doctor ,he is always patient with the patients
作为一个医生,他一贯对患者很耐心。(As a doctor 作主补)

{6} 作状语。如:
I wil be free on Tuesday morning.
星期二上午我有空。(时间状语)
We’ll meet at the station .
我们将在火车站碰面。(地点状语)
She covered her face with her hands and cried
她用双手捂着脸哭。(方式状语)
He left home and worked in a big city for the sake o f money .
他为了赚钱,离家到一个大城市工作。(目的状语)
The tree died from want of water .
这棵树因缺水而死。(原因状语)
In spite of all his effort ,he failed
尽管他很努力,但还是失败了。(让步状语)
No living thing can live without water.
生物离开水都无法生存。(条件状语)
With the words, he came into the room他说着话就进来了。(伴随状语)
To a great extent, it is not fair .
在很大程度上,这是不公平的。(程度状语)
In general her works have been good, but this one is dreaful.
总的来说,她的作品很不错,不过这篇很糟。?( in general 作评注性状语)
It doesn’t seem ugly to me , on the contrary, I think it’s very beautiful.
我觉得它不丑,恰恰相反,我觉得它很美。(on the cntrary作连接性状语)

3. 介词与其他词类的固定搭配

介词常常和形容词、名词、动词等构成固定搭配,即某些词的后面常要求特定的介词以表示固定的意义。

(1).形容词与介词的固定搭配
形容词与介词的固定搭配

{1} 形容词+about
Angry with对……生气  anxous about担心 calm about对……很平静
care bout小心   careless about粗心   certain about对……有把握
curious about对……好奇  sure about确信  doubtful about对……怀疑
enthusiastic about对……热情的;热心的   hopeful about对……抱希望
frank about对……坦白的;坦率的  incredulous about对……不相信

{2} 形容词+at
clever at擅长于……  expert at对……熟练的  good at擅长于……
indignant at对……愤慨的  quick at做……敏捷  slow at 对……反应慢
surprised at对……吃惊

{3} 形容词+for
anxious for渴望的   eligible for有资格的  famous for因……而著名
fit for对某人适宜   hungry for对……渴望  late for迟到
possible for可能   qualified for有资格的  ready for准备好
responsible for对……负责   necessary for为……所必需

{4} 形容词+from
absent from缺席  free from使……摆脱  prohibited from禁止某事物
safe from安全  detached from分开某物  different from与……不同

{5} 形容词+in
absorbed in专心于   disappointed in对……失望  experienced in有经验
expert in 在……熟练  fortunate in有幸   interested in对……感兴趣
rich in富于;盛产   successful in在……成功

{6} 形容词+ of
afraid of害怕  ashamed of羞耻  aware of知道  certain of确信
fond of喜爱   guilty of有罪的   proud of骄傲  short of缺乏
sick of厌烦  tired of厌倦  worthy of值得

{7} 形容词+to
contrary to与……相反  determined to有决心的  equal to等于
familiar to为……所熟悉  favourabel to对……有利  harmful to有害的
inclined to准备做某事  indifferent to对……不在乎  similar to相似;相同

{8} 形容词+with
angry with对……感到恼火  annoyed at对……烦恼  busy with忙于
crowded with拥挤  familiar with精通;熟悉  friendly with与……友好
nervouse with对……感到紧张  patient with对……有耐心  popularwith受欢迎
satified with对……满意

{9} 形容词+on
dependent on依靠  intend on坚决;专心 keen on热衷于某事物 severe on严格的

(2). 名词与介词的固定搭配

{1} 介词+名词。如:
at the cinema在电影院 at university上大学
  from……point of view从某人的角度  for the sake of为了
in poerty 在穷困中  in earnest有决心的
on sale在出售    on the average平均的 on the contrary相反地
on the radio 通过收音机  to some extent某种程度
to one’ssurprise让某人吃惊  to one’sdelight让某人高兴

{2} 名词+介词。如:
dependence on依靠    independence on不依靠
discussion about/on关于……的讨论   hundres on数以百计的
thousands of成千上万的    influence on对……的影响
explanationof/for对……的解释     half of……的一半
the idea of……的主意    lack of缺乏
proof of……的证据     reason of……的原因
Responsibility for对……的责任     success in/at在……成功

(3). 动词与介词的固定搭配

{1} 动词+介词

agree with同意;赞同 arrive at到达 arrive in到达
fall behind 落后 come from来自 sonsist of由……组成
get to到达 hear from收到……来信 hear of听说
laugh at嘲笑 listen to听 look after照看;照料
look at看 look for寻找 look like看起来
{2} 动词+副词+介词

catch up with赶上; 超过

do well in在……方面做得好 get on with与某人相处
go on with继续 take care of关心 take part in参加

英语介词用法

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